This is a tsuba signed “Masamitsu, residing in Shinshu,” which was manufactured in the latter part of the Edo period and reproduced this year by our CEO, Takahashi Masaki. This reproduced tsuba was displayed at the Society for Preservation of Japanese Art Swords’ exhibition of newly made swords.
In the two previous chapters, numbers 9 and 20, dedicated to reproduction studies, we explained the characteristics of Mokume Gane patterns by type. The characteristics of this tsuba’s pattern are different again from those. This chapter will look in to the Mokume Gane pattern in this particular tsuba.
This is an octagonal tsuba that is refined and presents a feminine elegance. In ancient Japan, the number eight was auspicious and regarded as a “sacred number”. It was also considered to be a well-balanced and steady shape that represented all directions (as in fortunetelling). The exquisite Mokume Gane pattern stretches out over one side of the elegant octagonal tsuba. It is as though fine and intricate lines had been drawn on the red base of copper, in a marbling effect. The black part is in shakudo (an alloy of copper and gold) and the Mokume-Gane was achieved by using a chisel to carve out the multilayered surface of copper and shakudo. Since the shakudo used in the layering was quite a bit thinner than the copper, the final effect once it had been flattened was that of fine marbling (suminagashi).
This effect can be seen in the Sanjyurokuninshu scrolls in which are compiled “waka” poems by The Thirty Six Immortals of Poetry of Japan, where various decorative patterns act like supporting players to the waka itself. Marbling is one of the decorative methods, such as stringing together washi Japanese paper of slightly different colors in a method known as “tsugikami,” producing a beautiful artistic effect with rice paper made by watermarking beautiful patterns, or decorations made using gold leaf. This is a technique in which absolutely unique results are achieved by adding drops of ink to water and transferring the patterns that are formed to rice paper. Possibly, these patterns are also meant to convey the ever-changing pattern of clouds in the sky.
The technique of Mokume-Gane is similar. Didn’t the maker of this tsuba feel the similarities of these characteristics as he created a pattern using randomness? When it is fitted to the sword, the pattern is not visible at first glance. But the more closely you look at it, this strangely fascinating Mokume Gane tsuba draws you in to its boundless intricacy and exquisiteness.
The mid-autumn harvest moon this year was on September 13. We hope you were able to admire it. One of the traditional images of the moon in Japan shows a rabbit pounding mochi, and this has, since ancient times, often been used as an image in the world of Japanese crafts. One of these images does not depict the moon itself but combines the rabbit with other designs to create a perception of the moon.
Scouring Brush (Tokusa) Rreeds and Rabbits
Rabbits by some scouring brush reeds. Starting in the 18th century, there were many cases of works depicting this particular combination.
It is said that the origin lies in Zeami’s Noh song “Tokusa”: “The autumn moon, as if brightly polished, shines through the trees of Mt. Sonohara, where the scouring brush reeds are harvested.” When this song is depicted in a art, the fact of painting an image of a rabbit, which is associated with the “brightly polished moon”, that is to say the full moon, enables the artist to hint at the moon without actually showing it.
In this Mokume Gane tsuba, which is part of Mokumeganeya’s collection, are depicted Tokusa reeds and rabbits looking upward. At first glance, it looks like the only use of an intricate Mokume Gane pattern is in the portion around the hole and which therefore cannot be seen once the blade is fitted. But in fact, the entire tsuba is made from bicolored Mokume Gane, combining copper and Shakudo. The surface finish is black, representing the darkness of night. But depending on the angle at which one shines a light on it, the underlying Mokume Gane pattern becomes slightly visible. It is likely that the craftsman who made the tsuba used this technique to hint at the surroundings in the moonlight rather than convey total darkness. Beyond the rabbits looking up at the moon, the moon itself was doubtless shining brightly. Mokume Gane comes into play to depict the background, rather than just show a simple pattern.
The brush reeds and rabbits are made three-dimensional through metal inlay using gold and silver, and the additional very fine line engraving on the surface of the brush reeds and rabbits emphasizes their delicate texture further. The red coloring on the rabbits’ eyes both makes the rabbits look cute and adds to the charm of the piece.
The quality of the metalwork in a tsuba that is less than 7cm in diameter is extremely fine. In this piece, the Mokume Gane technique, while being secondary, plays a major role in depicting the subject.
Finally, we would like to introduce the ukiyo-e print of “Rabbits and Reeds in the Moonlight” by Utagawa Hiroshige which is in the collection of the Tokyo National Museum. In this case, the full moon is depicted, with the rabbits looking up at it.. It is interesting to compare this image to that of the tsuba.
The technique of Mokume-Gane came from the techniques for manufacturing tsuba (sword guards).
From the time when swords were used as weapons, through the peaceful world of the Edo period, there was a strong inclination for sword accessories to be seen by warriors as an expression of themselves and of their individuality. This is how highly decorative tsuba came to be made, and the intricate patterns made from Mokume Gane came to be used.
The very shape of tsuba depended on the taste of its owner. In olden times, people did not just pick a shape as a simple design, but rather were moved by the belief that certain shapes were auspicious for them. We will introduce here Mokume Gane tsuba and the meaning of their shapes.
This is the shape that is most often used in tsuba. As the circular shape signifies “completion” or a “lack of angles,” its positive meaning is liked by many.
“Mokkôgata” lobed (quince)-shaped
The name comes from a resemblance with the cross-section of a quince. The appeal of the quince comes from it giving a great deal of fruit, and since it also resembles a bird’s nest, it has long been appreciated for its connotations of a prosperous progeny. It comes in four, five and six segment variants.
“Aorigata” saddle-flap shaped
The “aori” were leather pieces that would hang down from a horse’s saddle to offer protection from mud. This was a shape that was familiar to warriors and that is why it was used as a tsuba shape. It is a solid shape, with the lower part being somewhat wider than the upper part.
“Gunbaigata” Military fan-shaped
Long been believed to ward off demons and call down mysterious powers, the fan shape has also been used in Shinto rituals. In addition, it is said to be an auspicious shape that shows the right direction to move forward, just like brandishing the military fan led the way to victory.
“Kikubanagata” chrysanthemum flower-shaped
Since the Edo period, September 9th has been designated “Chôyô no Sekku” or Chrysanthemum Festival, in which chrysanthemum sake is drunk while praying for long life. For the Japanese, the chrysanthemum is a very familiar flower with good connotations.
In ancient Japan, 8 was considered a “sacred number” that was very auspicious. It is also a stable and well-balanced shape that incorporates all 8 directions used in divination.
There are also various other shapes of tsuba, and all of them are said to be auspicious, and one can imagine how important it was for ancient people to wear them on their person.
At Mokumeganeya, we consider ourselves the heirs of those ancient people and their wishes and so produce “tsuba jewelry” using the popular “Yottsumokkôgata” shape handed down from the Edo period.
For those of you visiting Mokume Gane Fairs, we would like to let you know that, in addition to jewelry, you might be interested in purchasing our wristwatches. We recently put on the market a watch with a dial made of mokume gane. Mokumeganeya collaborated with the Seiko Watch orporation to produce a limited edition model as the “45th Brand Launch Anniversary Commemorative Model” of Seiko’s highest-end Credor brand.
There is a special “Mokume Gane Direct” page on the Credor website, with the following text:
“ Credor is celebrating its 45th anniversary.
To mark this event, we have produced a decorative dial made using mokume gane, a metal-working technique dating back to the Edo period.
The multicolored patterns that are produced using this technique, which originated and evolved in Japan, convey both beauty and eternity.”
The craftsmanship that has been cultivated in over a hundred years of Seiko’s history is based on a brand concept in which existing traditional watch-making techniques are treasured whilst simultaneously offering new styles. The aim is to produce designs that distill the essence of the Japanese sense of beauty while holding world-wide appeal. Already in the past, the company has marketed models that made use of traditional lacquer techniques with mother-of-pearl and gold lacquer on black japanned bases.
The design concept of the mokume gane dial is known as “Kazemoku,” depicting the profoundly Japanese landscape of ears of rice fluttering in the wind. The original design is a sublimation in design of a rich, golden-hued landscape.
In the past, during the Edo period, the great tsuba craftsman Takahashi Okitsugu produced mokume gane designs for tsuba that depicted “red maple leaves swirling in the Tatsuta River” and “cherry blossoms floating in the Yoshino River.” The flowing rivers represented the passing of time. In this particular case, the unseen “wind” is depicted in the tiny world of the watch dial which itself visualizes time.
Here are some more details on the production of this dial, which was a first for Mokumeganeya.
The Mokume Gane used in the dial is made of 18 carat white, yellow and pink gold, plus silver.
The various colored plates were stacked keeping in mind the desired pattern in the final product once the metal has been flattened. These stacked plates are bigger than the ones used to manufacture rings, and there are more of them, so particular care needed to be given to the fusion.
The thickness of each plate is between 0.15mm and 0.2mm. They were stacked and then underwent diffusion bonding in an electric furnace.
Each billet was shaved down by hand using a Leutor tool. As the depth of the shaving changes, the color that comes to the surface changes, so the design is achieved by alternating shaving, heating and flattening.
The plate that finally becomes the dial is 0.8mm thick. In order to achieve the perfect design with that particular thickness, great care had to be taken in the repetition of shaving and flattening.
The plate was cut to the round shape and size of the dial, and it was then polished so as to make the pattern stand out. It was then complete.
Following this, the watch was assembled by Seiko Watch Corporation. The ultra-thin hand-winding “Gulliver 6890” movement was fitted into the 18 carat pink gold case. The total thickness being only 1.98mm, the highly-skilled watchmakers could only assemble one or two units per day. The final product is a superb masterpiece which is the handmade fruit of the labor of highly-skilled craftsmen.
This collaborative product presents a different level of difficulty in comparison to the wedding rings produced by Mokumeganeya. We discussed this with the craftsmen concerned.
In order to achieve the desired design image once the metal had been flattened, it was necessary to repeat the process of fusing and shaving many times while changing the thickness of the stack of sheets 0.05mm at a time. As the surface was limited to the size of the dial, the thickness was set at 0.8mm and if the stack was shaved down too much, the traces of the shaving would be visible when the desired thickness was achieved. But overly shallow shaving would yield a monotone effect. The thickness of the silver or gold, depending on their position in the stack, would alter the design effect. It’s almost impossible to count how many tests were done before achieving the final product.
Since this is handmade, the exact same design cannot be achieved twice, and the uniqueness of each design is the charm of Mokume Gane, but on this occasion, it was necessary to achieve a uniform design is order to preserve the “Kazemoku” pattern. Since the pattern would change if there was even a slight over-shaving of the surface, special effort was made to keep the angle of the blade constant.
The surface underwent a frosting process, but with the particularity of Mokume Gane coming from the use of different metals, irregularities can easily appear when the surface is processed. Also, as the surface is much bigger than in rings, it was a challenge to achieve a uniform impression.
Also, normally, there is no surface processing, but as the product this time was the dial of a watch, part of a precision instrument, it was necessary to ensure that it was perfectly flat. The thickness of the finished product was 0.8mm. It required a great deal of effort in terms of roller work and press processing to achieve a completely flat surface on extra-thin sheets made of metals of different hardness.
This product marketing collaboration came about after someone at the Seiko Watch Corporation saw an interview with Mokumeganeya President Takahashi in the Nihon Keizai Shimbun newspaper. That article was written because a Nihon Keizai Shimbun journalist had purchased wedding rings from Mokumeganeya. The journalist was very interested in the pursuit of Mokume Gane by Takahashi, and interviewed him.
The efforts to replicate the Mokume Gane products from the Edo period, and to develop this traditional technique further into something that is relevant to the modern world have yielded another new product.
The “Mokume Gane Dial” has been available at Credor Salons and Credor Shops in Japan since August 9th, 2019. As numbers are very limited (35 watches in all), please contact the store ahead of time.
More detailed informational is available on the Seiko Watch Corporation website at
Among the crests that have been handed down for generations in Japan, there are family crests that are now being used as logos.
Among the Kozuka owned by Mokumeganeya, there are some from the Edo period with family crests.
The origins of family crests go back to the aristocratic society of the Heian period, when natural motifs came to be used decoratively in clothing and furniture items, and repeated use of favorite patterns developed into that family’s emblem. Also, in the warlike society that preceded the Edo period, it is said that they were used to tell different Daimyo warlords apart, and to differentiate between friend and foe on the battlefield. Patterns were used that were simple and easy to distinguish from a distance. And as the merchant culture of the Edo period evolved, they came to be used more widely as Kabuki actors and townspeople competed to be fashionable.
Around that period, there was also a trend to go beyond the precious family crests that had been transmitted for generations towards a broader derivative use in which they were enjoyed as ornamental patterns.
It is said that the logo monograms seen on famous overseas leather products also have their roots in these Japanese family crest derivatives.
The kozuka that was introduced above can be said to be one such example of a family crest derivative.
The two crests made of gold inlay in finely chiseled areas, stand out against the background of the complex and intricate Mokume Gane pattern.
The fan pattern is the same as the family crest of the Satake Clan of Akita Prefecture for which the originator of Mokume Gane, Shôami Denbei, worked.
One can say that depending on how it is used, Mokume Gane can be either on the frontline or in a support role in decorative arts techniques.
Types of Mokume Gane Pattern
The patterns of Mokume Gane are created by carving and twisting layers of metal. Because it is hand-made by craftsmen and the same patterns cannot be reproduced, each and every product can be described as unique. In this chapter, we will look at the specifics of individual pattern categories.
To start with is the Mokume Gane of the Akita Shôami school, the creators of Mokume Gane. Its particularity is the combination of diagonal stripy patterns that seem to be flowing with rounded burl-like patterns in colorful combinations of gold, silver, copper and shakudo.
The ingenious combination of carving and twisting produced patterns that made for the highly skilled early Mokume Gane.
Patterns created by Shôami Denbei are also being used in Mokume Gane jewelry and are very popular.
This is the kind of pattern most commonly seen in the Mokume Gane tsuba of the Edo period that are still in existence.
An intricate and elegant pattern was created by randomly hammering down the metal layers to flatten them.
The characteristic of the Mokume Gane made in the latter part of the Edo period by Tsunetada who lived in Bushu Kawagoe (the modern-day town of Kawagoe) was the Tamamoku pattern. Tamamoku refers to the burl pattern in wood and is a highly prized, beautiful pattern, developing layers of concentric swirls. The Tamamoku effect is achieved by carving the layers of differently colored metals into a circular shape which is then flattened. Tsunetada covered the entire surface of different-sized tsuba with Tamamoku, creating vibrant patterns.
In the case of Takahashi Okitsugu who worked in Edo, his uniqueness lay in his ability to represent realistic artistic landscapes in which even the passing of time could be felt within the small surface of a tsuba. He actually showed cherry blossoms and red maple leaves floating in a river. He was the one who took Mokume Gane from a technique to create patterns to one that could represent actual images.
This distinctive pattern by Okitsugu came to be used in the Mokume Gane tsuba seen in the latter part of the Edo period. The irregular superimposition of carved fine, vertical stripes resulted in a regular pattern, making Mokume Gane technique entirely into a technique for patterns.
We will conclude by introducing a very important Mokume Gane pattern.
The Shôami school spread and was active nationwide, and among these, Shôami Morikuni, a tsuba manufacturer of Iyo (the current Ehime Prefecture) left a rare square crest pattern for posterity. The pattern was achieved in the standard Tamamoku manufacturing method by carving down layered metal, but the surface of the tsuba is covered irregularly with both large and small square shaped crest patterns, giving a bold and virile impression. This is a very particular pattern of which there are no other examples.
It is said that Mokume Gane patterns are born of the conversation between the craftsman and the metal. Each and every pattern that is born of the combination of the intention of the maker and randomness is unique in the world.
The Use of Precious Metals in Mokume Gane
With the shift in the use of Mokume Gane which was made from gold, silver, copper, copper alloys in the Edo Period, to current times when it is used for decorative purposes, it was essential to transition to precious metals such as various colors of gold and platinum. This is because of the disadvantage in the loss through friction on copper alloys of the colors that are achieved with thin films that are applied to the surface using boiled color patination.
Mokumeganeya representative director TAKAHASHI Masaki obtained his doctoral degree on the subject of Mokume Gane. We will introduce here an outline of the portion of his doctoral thesis, “The Possibilities of Decorative Expressions in Mokume Gane Jewelry”, on the possibilities of precious metals in Mokume Gane.
In the second chapter of this PhD thesis, these decorative effects were verified by manufacturing color samples in which precious metals were substituted in the pattern on an Edo period tsuba that he had already reproduced. As a result, the first thing that became clear was the possibility of a new technology to naturally blend the hues of different metals in Mokume Gane. The colors of the precious metals that are frequently used in jewelry are gradations of gold, silver and copper. Mokume Gane could in fact bring out intermediate nuances.
The next point which was addressed is the renewed perception of the depth of Mokume Gane’s essence, which is a construction of patterns by interweaving materials. In producing the color samples by substituting precious metals, the combinations made it so that where the shades of adjoining precious metals were close, it was not possible to see the differences in pattern with the naked eye. Therefore, a method was developed to better define the color boundaries and enhance the decorative effect through a very slight corrosion of the metals. By enhancing definition through corrosion of Mokume Gane which is created by twisting, carving and then flattening the metal materials, a construction can be achieved that creates a pattern in which the interwoven metals support and bring out one another, creating a new outlet for the energy that is inside.
The slight difference in elevation brought about by the corrosion does not just have the effect of defining the shades in color more clearly, but also shows the undulations of the boundaries according to the order of the layering, which is a clear record of the time involved in the manufacturing process.
One could say that the patterns in the Mokume Gane jewelry made with precious metals represent both the intricate colors and also the time it has taken to achieve them.
Rôgin/Oborogin and Karasugane/Ukin
These are names of metals from Japan’s past. They refer to colors. They achieve something similar to the delicate nuances of color found in nature. They speak of the refinement of the Japanese who found so many different names for them.
During the Edo period, in addition to gold, silver and copper, mokume-gane was made using uniquely Japanese alloys such as shibuichi and shakudo. Patterns could be created thanks to the differences in color of these metals. Since, in their raw state, these copper alloys look no different from copper, it is hard to see the difference when they are layered with silver and copper and twisted or carved. It is with the final traditional technique known as boiled color patination that the color changes and that the intricate mokume-gane pattern becomes visible.
“Oborogin” is the name given to shibuichi after the boiled color patination. The term “Oboro” comes from “Oborotsukiyo” which refers to spring nights with a hazy moon, resonating with the actual color. The name suggests a layer of mist upon a brightly shining moon. The alloy consists of one part silver to three parts copper. “Karasugane” is another name for shakudo. The name comes from the resemblance to a crow’s feathers when wet. It is an alloy of copper and gold, with the proportion of gold varying from 1% to 5%.
Boiled color patination is a method whereby copper sulphate and Rokusho pigment are mixed with water, brought to the boil, and then boiled until the color is achieved.
When the boiling process is carried out, the surface must be polished so that there is not even the slightest irregularity nor any oxide film. To achieve this, the alloy is dipped, just before boiling, in water mixed with finely grated daikon radish, a method that has been transmitted unchanged from olden times.
The patinated alloy that has changed color has a thin film on its surface. You could say that it is a rusted surface. If this thin film is rubbed too hard, it will gradually disappear, so it is covered with either wax or a thin film of transparent paint. This is what makes it a challenge to use in modern jewelry.
At Mokumeganeya, we have been working on developing our technology in using gold and platinum, rather than copper alloys, in order to enhance the attractiveness of mokume-gane in modern times. Since the pattern is produced by the colors of the actual metals that are used, our aim is for mokume-gane patterns that you will be able to enjoy each and every day as you wear the pieces. We are making further efforts with regard to the layering of these precious metals, and that is what we will be discussing in our next chapter.
In the previous chapter, we introduced Shôami Denbei who created the concept of mokume-gane, and his gorgeous mokume-gane work. In this chapter, we would like to tell you about “guribori” which is linked to the advent of mokume-nane techniques.
It is said that mokume-gane techniques originated in the early Edo period, in the guribori tsuba created by Shôami Denbei. In guribori, different colored metals such as copper and shakudo are stacked alternately and fused, then arabesques and spirals are carved in so that the metal layering design is visible in the carved parts. There is a theory that this may have been influenced by the folk patterns of the Ainu, but it is generally believed that the roots lie in the Chinese lacquered “Guri.” This chapter will be devoted to “guri.”
Tsuba by Akita Shôami Signed Shôami Denbei residing in Dewa, Akita Middle of the Edo period Shakudo
Photographed fom Tsuba Taikan by Kawaguchi Wataru (Tôken Shunju)
The technique of applying the sap of the Japanese sumac tree to utensils is known as lacquering. Guri is one of the ancient lacquer techniques of China. Nowadays, most people are familiar with the likes of Wajima lacquer or Tsugaru lacquer, with tableware or gold makie works of art. Coating wooden utensils with lacquer makes them resistant and long-lasting. In ancient China, it was common to coat multiple layers of lacquer onto wooden items to achieve considerable thickness, and then carve this into three-dimensional patterns. These swirling patterns that looked like continuous warabi bracken were called guri. The arabesque patterns which had spread around the world since ancient times were further refined with abstract heart or swirl patterns appearing. Through the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, this Chinese lacquer came to Japan at the same time as Zen Buddhism, and was prized for use in tea utensils or incense containers. In Japan, the swirl patterns were called “kurikuri” which is how it came to be known as guri. The sound came to depict the pattern.
Guri wreath patterned tea bowl stand Song Dynasty Lacquer Property of Toyo National Museum ©Tokyo National Museum
Subsequently, this was imitated in Japan to carve designs on wood and apply lacquer to make Buddhist altar objects, becoming the origin of Kamakura-bori. There are masterpieces among Japanese made lacquer inro from the latter part of the Edo period believed to be of similar origin, showing us that such patterns circulated widely at the time.
Inro and netsuke Latter part of the Edo period lacquer Property of Mokumegane Research Institute
And going further back in China, it is said that the technique known as ”Saihi” which was mostly seen during the Southern Song dynasty is at the origin of guri. In this, yellow and orange coatings were applied alternately, with the final surface layer being black, and, as geometrical patterns were carved out, delicate layers of colored lacquer became visible. There are only a very few pieces still in existence. Both the Tokyo National Museum and the University Art Museum of the Tokyo University of the Arts have several pieces in their collections.
So, please take another look at the guribori tsuba made by Shôami Denbei. There is no doubt that the swirly pattern carved into the metal layers resembles the guri technique. And the reason why Denbei’s guribori is called the ancestor of mokume-gane lies in the similarity of the technique in carving down the layered metal. The greatest characteristic of the guribori of the Akita Shôami school, which started with Shôami Denbei, is its full three-dimensional effect. The carving is bold but there is refinement within the scale and massiveness giving it the characteristics of being an ancestor. It is also well-rounded, giving an impression of the same level of outstanding technique seen in the Southern Song dynasty incense containers
Guribori incense container Meiji period lacquer Japan Mokumegane Research Institute
Shôami Denbei further developed this guribori technique and created the mokume-gane technique that produces the gorgeous patterns such as those we described in the previous issue. He was able to produce intricate patterns by carving and twisting the layered metal billets and then pounding them down with a hammer.
Further advances in guribori technique were not immediate and happened in the latter part of the Edo period. Takahashi Masatsugu who was a craftsman specializing in sword tsuba was active during the Bunka and Bunsei eras (1804-1829), and left elegant and refined guribori pieces for posterity. Subsequently Masatsugu’s adopted son, Takahashi Okitsugu, specialized in guribori and mokume-gane. Looking at the magnificent existing sword fittings by the Takahashi school, starting with Masatsugu and Okitsugu, it seems appropriate to say that this was the pinnacle of guribori and mokume-gane techniques.
Guribori tsuba Signed: Takahashi Masatsugu (hanaoshi) Middle of Edo period Silver, copper, shakudo Property of Japan Mokumegane Research Institute
Guribori tsuba Signed: Takahashi Okitsugu (hanaoshi) Middle of Edo period Copper, shakudo Property of Japan Mokumegane Research Institute
At Mokumeganeya, we have adapted the technique of guribori, with its long history, to modern times, and are putting our all into producing wedding rings that our customers can wear forever.
Reference documents: Tokyo National Museum Masterpiece Gallery
In the last chapter, we told you about Shôami Denbei who made the kozuka which is acknowledged to be the oldest and most beautiful example of Mokume-Gane. The CEO of Mokumeganeya, Takahashi Masaki, made a reproduction study of this Mokume Gane kozuka signed Shôami Denbei, made of gold, silver and other metals, and an Akita Prefecture designated cultural property, in 2003 in order to elucidate this outstanding design that was particular to Shôami Denbei and not seen elsewhere. We will give an overview of this project here. This represented the first such study of the design techniques of Edo period Mokume Gane. Below is an excerpt from the study thesis.
The first step was to enlarge a photograph of the Kozuka knife and trace the pattern in order to find out how many types of metal has been used and how they had been stacked. Within the detail of the pattern, the intricate changes in the materials, reminiscent of the fine contour lines on a map, are laid out within a framework of as little as one millimeter square. The technique of Mokume Gane consists of first carving down a metal stack, or billet, using tools such as a chisel, and then creating the pattern by using a hammer to forge it flat. By using this process, the order of the metal layers remains the same whichever portion is extracted to reveal the pattern on the surface.
It became clear, as a result of the observation, that the order of the layers was reversed at the boundary between the A portion and the B (copper) portion of the pattern. Comparing the trace drawing to the contour lines showed that this was not a simple reversal in the order of the layers, and that the metal layer before and after the displayed “copper” was the same layer. This led to the thinking that, before creating the pattern, some sort of particular process was used so as to reverse the order of the layering in part. Further observation of the C portion confirmed that the layers were reversed with (c) as a boundary and that, furthermore, these were in the same order of layering as the A portion.
It can be assumed from these results that the reversal in the layers is something that happened with regularity. A more detailed analysis of the close-up clearly showed that the reversal in the layers occured alternately as original Mokume Gane patterns in segments of the streamline shape.
The order of the layering was determined to be the 16 layers of copper, Shakudô, gold, copper, Shakudô, silver, copper, Shakudô, gold, copper, Shakudô, silver, copper, Shakudô, gold, copper. It can be supposed that these metals were layered, forged into a billet, and then underwent a twisting process.
The results of the analysis show that after fours counts of twisting of the surface, the back, the surface and the back, the billet was then flattened using a hammer. It is through this process that the twisted pattern that is at the origin of Shoami Denbei’s unique Mokume Gane pattern came up to the surface.
The actual reproduction study was done based on the results of this analysis.
1. Following verification by tracing the pattern, 6 sheets of copper, 5 sheets of Shakudô, 3 sheets of gold and 2 sheets of silver were prepared.
2. The sheets were stacked in order and heated, becoming fused. They were then hammered down in order to produce a rectangular billet.
3. The billet was then slowly and carefully twisted four times, surface, back, surface, back, while paying attention to the order of the layering.
4.The billet that had undergone twist processing was then repeatedly carved and hammered down until it was flat, and the pattern was revealed.
The end of the reproduction study
The thing that very much came to mind at the end of the reproduction study is that these unique patterns are at the root of the original Mokume Gane technique. The point is that this way of revealing patterns goes beyond “something that is produced randomly.” It is the solid manifestation of the culmination of a very refined technique by Shoami Denbei who turned the random into the natural.
Even the patterns that are graceful and fresh at first glance require in their making minute attention and careful work. The reproduction made it possible to experience how the details of the idea that started as a glimmer in the creator’s eye became feasible as a pattern. The insatiable quest of Shoami Denbei for the possibilities in Mokume Gane techniques was clearly felt.